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Marey: Understanding the Flight of Birds
Eventually the technology developed sufficently for him to bring the equipment into his studio, and he started doing studies of successive images on a single sheet of film. Images like this early chronophotograph of a seagull in flight allowed him to capture the position of the whole animal at regularly spaced intervals, and make accurate analyses of the exact mechanism of flight.
It's important to note that these images weren't illustrations of his research. They were his research, the raw material that he used to draw rigorous conclusions about the world and how it works. They're basically maps of the movement of time.